Research Station of Viticulture and Enology Blaj was founded in year 1946, in the village of Crăciunelui de Jos whilst the viticulture studies started here have represented the bases for the development of viticulture in Transylvania. In the meantime, researches have been started as concerns selection, amelioration and production of the planting material.
In 1950, agro-technical and vinification researches have been initiated and starting with the beginning of year 1953, the scientific thematic has included aspects of agro-chemistry and phyto-sanitary protection, as well.
In 1960, due to the increase of the patrimony and diversity of research thematic the headquarters of the station has been transferred to Blaj. Collaboration conditions have been created for the enlargement of the activity with other viticulture units from the area, with respect of the production supervising and monitoring, under direct assistance of the researchers from SCPV Blaj.
The development of viticulture in Transylvania has required knowledge and the establishment of systems for vine from this specific area. Pedo-climatic conditions have encouraged the cultivation of vine for the production of white wines.
At the time being, the station develops its activity in the following directions:
Scientific research in the fields of: viticulture, vinification and floriculture, directly referring to genetics and improvement of viticulture varieties, production of planting material with high biological value, agro-techniques and viticulture ecology , agro-chemistry, physiology and biochemistry, protection of plants, land survey, vinification, wine chemistry and microbiology.
The activity of research development and assessment is based mainly on the cultivation of vine and production of high quality white wines for inner and international market.
The station also produces: viticulture planting material from clones and varieties newly created in its own research sector, horticulture planting material, fruits, vegetables, flowers and vegetable and flower seeds.
3. Technical assistance granted to the influence zone of SCPV Blaj by specialists in viticulture and vinification:.
Extension and generalisation in the production of research results applied in the influence zones of the station ( Alba, Cluj, Bistrita Nasaud, Hunedoara, Mures, Salaj and Sibiu counties) by setting up of new vine plantations with superior biologic materials, by extension of new varieties, which were recently patented and of clones obtained at the Research Sector, by participating to the elaboration and checking of the setting up of projects as concerns new plantations and technical guiding for maintenance and exploitation of the existing plantation, organisation of meetings and practical demonstrations or visits to the experimental lots ;
Research laboratories endowed with necessary equipment and know-how for the accomplishment of specific analysis for soil, plant, diseases and pests, wine respectively;
Analysis and control laboratory for must, wine and alcoholic beverages of viticulture and of fruit-growing origin – licensed to accomplish analyses for the internal and external market;
Technical Zone Committee for the control of the “name of origin “ wine production ;
Territory Committee for checking and certification of the quality of wines and alcoholic beverages of vine-growing and fruit-growing origin.
Participation to internal and international scientific conferences, competitions and to national and international fairs for wines.
Publications in scientific revues for specialists, advertising brochures for the production sector disclosure of results of the scientific research.
Integration of Research into Instruction:
Nearby SCPV Blaj, is functioning “ the College of Viticulture and Wine Technology”
(duration of studies:3 years), section of the Faculty of Horticulture in the framework of USAMV Cluj-Napoca (University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinarian Medicine of Cluj-Napoca).
Each year, students from the Agricultural Universities of Cluj-Napoca, Iasi, Timisoara and Bucuresti and from the agricultural high schools of Blaj and Ciumbrud fulfil their practice of speciality in the laboratories and experimental fields of SCPV Blaj.
Main objectives of the research activity and the results achieved at SCPV Blaj
Behaviour of the viniferous varieties in different spreading areas of vine culture in the Transylvanian vineyards :
Division into districts and micro-districts of viticulture in the Transylvanian vineyards in order to establish the variety .
Ezerfurtu and Blauerzweigelt have been authorised for reproduction ;
Study of the behaviour of aromatic varieties in the conditions of the Tarnave vineyard in order to introduce them into the cultivated viticulture varieties;
Establishment of the behaviour of some grape varieties from world-wide varieties in the conditions of the Tarnave vineyard.
Creation of grafting varieties for the conditions of the Tarnave vineyard :
There have been patented clones like : Crăcinel 26 , Crăciunel 71,Crăciunel 25 , Crăciunel 4.
Creation of high productive viniferous varieties and with increased resistance to frost and diseases for the production of superior quality white wine :
There have been patented varieties like : Blasius , Selena , Astra , as varieties for superior quality white wines; Radames and Brumăriu as varieties resisting to frost and diseases ; Amurg variety for superior quality red wines:
Amelioration of wine grape varieties by selection of biotypes :
Study of the ecological- geographic validity of some wine grapes (collaboration with INRA- France) .
There have been patented clones : Traminer roz -60 , Pinot gris –34 , Sauvignon –9 , Fetească regală .21 , Riesling italian –3 , Muscat Ottonel –12 , Neuburger – 10 .
Elaboration of technologies for producing viticulture planting materials :
Made technology for grafted vine , in intensive system, without ridges with paraffining of the cuttings;
Made technology for grafted vine in the year of setting up of the plantations by fortifying in nutritive pots for planting in the definitive place in the period of vegetation;
Made technology for grafted vine in solarium, on ameliorated soil;
Establishment of solutions for planning, improvement and preparing of inclined grounds for the setting up of new viticulture plantations :
Terrace technology by uncovering;
Finding solutions of organisation and for using the inclined grounds by anti-erosional fittings and setting up of intensive viticulture plantations ;
Method of improvement of soils on excavated terraces-embankment by using fertile soil resulted from the cutting off;
Elaboration of technologies for vine cultures :
Technology of setting up of viticulture plantations ;
Establishing forms of conducting, cutting and loads on crop for the main viniferous varieties from the Transylvanian vineyards ;
Method of completion of lacks in the viticulture plantations by layering;
Establishing the optimal period for the digging out of vine ;
Establishing the cutting and conducting system of vine- so called “in Transylvanian circle”, on the private plantations ;
Delimitation of cultivated districts and finding of means of protection as concerns vine in the Transylvanian vineyards ;
Differential protection technology in the conditions of the Tarnave vineyard;
Setting up technology of vine plantations on grounds which are planned on terraces;
Establishing the culture elements for new varieties, which have been recently introduced from world-wide varieties (Pearl of Zala , Ezerfurtu , Blauerzweigelt) ;
Establishing the herbicide varieties for chemical control of weeds in the Tarnave vineyard.
Nutrition and fertilisation of vine. Prevent pollution as regards viticulture environment:
Eco-physiological features of viniferous varieties (Muscat Ottonel , Fetească regală , Traminer roz , Riesling italian ) as basics for cultivation technologies;
Establishment of economic doses of chemical fertilisers, in the conditions of Tarnave vineyard ;
Establishing method for the probability of appearance of ferric chlorosis at vine (Patent No. 98196);
Fertilisation of viticulture plantations with compost resulted from wooden offal;
Establishment and testing of the efficiency of several chemical fertilisers used for nourishing the viticulture plantations ;
Establishment of physical-chemical features of the main soil types in the Tarnave vineyard and of the limiting ecological and pedological factors for vine cultivation;
Establishment of the rate of pollution (inorganic materials ) of viticulture soil in the Tarnave vineyard;
Agro-chemical measures for fighting against the polluting effect of industrial noxa ;
Phytosanitary protection of vine:
Establishment of the economic limit of pests and diseases with regard vine ;
Rationalisation of pesticide consumption and of the volume of liquid used for the phyto-sanitary treatments, depending on vine culture and means of application .
Fighting technologies against acarians of vine;
Technological scheme of biologic prevention against grape moth (Eupoecilia ambiguella Den. et Schiff and Lobesia botrana Den. et Schiff ) in the conditions of Tarnave vineyard;
Testing the efficiency and doses of some pesticides, recently introduced in our country, for the prevention of diseases and pests of vine;
Vinification, wine chemistry and microbiology:
Study of grapes as raw material for vinification in order to use the quality potential of the varieties belonging to the Tarnave vineyard and from the influence zone of SCPV Blaj;
Establishment of the technological value of new grape varieties, clones and hybrids of vine , anilinic and organoleptic characterisation of wines by varieties, viticulture centres and vineyards ( from the influence zone of SCPV Blaj);
Technological scheme for the production of white dry wines of superior quality in Central Transylvanian vineyards;
Technological scheme as concerns the production of reducing type white wines by early bottling;
Technological scheme of producing aromatic wine of “Muscat “ type in Tarnave vineyard ;
Technological solutions for producing white wines with rest of sugar in Tarnave vineyards (Muscat Ottonel , Traminer roz , Chardonnay , Sauvignon blanc );
Establishment of the chemical composition and technological elements for obtaining white wines destined for export (Traminer , Muscat Ottonel , Sauvignon , Pinot gris , Riesling italian ) in Tarnave vineyard;
Possibilities of producing dry white wines of “Vins primeurs” type, with freshness and specific aroma for each variety;
Technological scheme for the elaboration of wine- as raw material for sparkling wines;
Technological scheme for elaboration of bottled wines after “Champenoise” method;
Behaviour of some yeast selected for the secondary fermentation process in bottles after “Champenoise” method;
Technological scheme for the production of special wines of Xeres type;
Experimentation and elaboration of new methods for analysis and control of wine quality and other alcoholic beverages – elaboration and revision of some STAS (standards)
Study of yeast and bacteria which intervene into the vinification process and the possibility of using them for the improvement of the quality of wines;
Taxonomic study of yeast in the Tarnave vineyards;
District delimitation of viticulture areas for the production of superior quality vines with” name of origin”– DOC and DOCC for viticulture centres.
Elaboration of decisions as regards the producer right for wines with “name of origin”.